The first issue, No. 1
The second issue, No. 2
The first issue, No. 1 (2023)
Groundwater investigation in saharan areas using statistical and stable isotope approaches – el golea central south of Algeria case study
Groundwater quality determination and age estimation in a desert landscape of El Golea province situated in the south of Algeria has been investigated in the present research paper. For this regard, 57 water samples were collected from an aquifer composed of two superimposed systems; phreatic and deep continental intercalary (CI) aquifers which are a part of the Northern Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS). Samples were analyzed to assess the age and water quality using descriptive, multivariate statistics (PCA and HCA) and stable isotopes. It is revealed that more than 71% of the IC points are characterized by a water type (Ca2+, Mg2+) (HCO3–)2 and more than 83% of the TC samples are defined by a water type (Ca2+, Na+) (HCO3–, SO42–) and very high salt ions contents due to the influence of surface water, evaporate leaching and irrigation water return. The isotopic composition of samples of phreatic and CI aquifers shows a clear difference between the two qualities of water. The phreatic aquifer is characterized by the δ18O range from –4.68 to –6.1, whereas δ2H from –47.25 to –59.48 and CI with values of the δ18O range from –5.96 to –7.6, and δ2H range between –53.7 and –65.78 isotopic signature. The unconfined aquifer above IC forms a special case of a mixture of ancient water from deep horizons and recent water strongly enriched from shallow horizon lands.
Keywords: Albian aquifer • geochemistry • statistical approaches • stable isotopes • Saharan land
Integration of terrestrial laser scanning and uav-based photogrammetry for heritage building information modeling
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the process of generating 3D models based on object databases. They are made for various types of buildings, sites and objects, and their task is to represent all the structural and architectural features of the object using parametric models. The BIM technology involves the preparation of the model that is already at the design stage of the building, in such a way that it is used during conceptual and implementation works, as well as during its final operation. However, a BIM model of existing objects can also be generated. Historic buildings are a special group of objects The HBIM (Heritage Building Information Modeling) model is used not only as an inventory of the object in its current state, but also as a background and a tool for visualising the object in its restored state, or as a source of information about the building itself for conservation, renovation and documentation purposes. Such a model can be created based on various types of source data. The basis for the development of the BIM model can be formed by data acquired during the inventory of the facility using surveying methods, laser scanning and photogrammetry. This paper presents the process of data acquisition of a historic object using the example of Lamus Dworski with the use of TLS and UAV. The study also includes the process of HBIM modeling of the object using point clouds as well as photographic documentation and data recorded in the monument card.
Keywords: BIM • data integration • geospatial data • TLS • UAV • 3D model
Assessment of the impact of the Tomaszów Lubelski bypass on the spatial structure of rural areas
In recent years, the road network in Poland has undergone significant development, meeting the objective of creating a coherent network of roads to ensure the efficient functioning of passenger and freight transport. Linear investments, such as the construction of motorways, expressways or bypasses, are an important element that improves the safety and comfort of the life of residents, and has a significant impact on the economic and regional progress. In addition to the undoubted benefits of constructing a bypass, its possible negative impact on the surrounding agricultural and forest areas should be emphasised. Poor planning and construction of the bypass itself, without prior programming of survey and management works, can lead to disturbances in the spatial structure of neighbouring villages.
This study attempts to analyse and evaluate the impact of the construction of the Tomaszów Lubelski bypass on the spatial structure of rural areas located in the eastern part of Tomaszów County (Lubelskie Voivodeship), which is a 9.58 km long section of the S17 Warsaw – Hrebenne expressway. The study undertook a detailed analysis of only those factors that adversely affect the spatial structure of rural areas. On the basis of research on the subject, factors affecting and significantly changing the spatial structure of rural areas were identified, which allowed to formulate final conclusions regarding the problem of realising linear investments in relation to shaping the space of rural areas.
Keywords: spatial structure • land use • linear investments • bypass • land consolidation • landscape planning
Simplified diffusion analysis – cartography as a tool for combating pandemics
The transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a complex and intricate process, but it is possible to efficiently track and contain the spread of the pandemic in a given area by observing the regularities of the pathogen’s diffusion. One of the basic measures to hamper the development of the disease was to reduce the intensity of social contact by banning free movement. An adequate response in selected regions, where the virus develops much more rapidly, is crucial and prevents serious economic damage to many industries. The modern perception of cartography as an interdisciplinary tool can contribute to limiting the diffusion of infection through spatial analyses.
The aim of this paper is to present cartography as a tool to support the “management” of a pandemic. In terms of methodology, the well-known choropleth map method was employed along with spatial structure analyses. The basic category considered within the framework of statistics and econometrics is spatial relationships formulated for the purpose of achieving the set objective in the form of spatial weight matrices. In the analyses presented here, a modified Moran model was used, within which the Authors applied a row-standardised weight matrix using migration data of individual counties. The paper reviews what has been achieved so far, based mainly on European solutions. Insufficient availability of reliable data needed for advanced models (especially in the initial phase of virus spread) means that using migration data from the nearest neighbourhood can be a viable solution. This approach comes down to an analysis of migration and the population density in the county in question. A simplified analysis with a statistically significant probability allows the identification of counties that could potentially become sites of uncontrolled virus transmission in areas of high population density and high mobility. This is undoubtedly the main achievement of the publication.
The results obtained converge approximately with the actual development of a pandemic. The studies carried out indicate that the development of a pandemic is influenced not only by the number of infections, but above all by population density, as well as economic, social, educational and transport networks, as shown by the high Pearson coefficient correlation of 0.83. The analyses indicate the possibility of uncontrolled transmission of the virus in areas of high population density and high mobility.
Keywords: cartography • spatial weight matrix • SARS-CoV-2 • COVID-19 • choropleth map • pandemic combating model
Impact of eu funds on the development of mountain areas in the period 2007–2013 – the example of the Lipnica Wielka municipality
European Union support is often very important at the beginning of an investment, especially when own resources are insufficient. EU funds provide Poland with a range of development opportunities, and whether they are used appropriately depends mainly on their proper management. Lipnica Wielka is an example of the use of such funds, especially in the period 2007–2013, when the funds were primarily intended to improve the quality of life of residents. The investments in infrastructure should have a positive impact on tourism in the area. The municipality’s main assets are its clean air and attractive location. Advanced organic farming together with a well-developed recreational and agrotourism base have been adopted as the main target of the Municipality’s Local Development Plan. The material benefits of the development of tourism and agrotourism are expected to improve the standard of living of the municipality’s residents. The aim of the paper is to analyse the use of grants received from the EU funds and to determine their impact on the development of the municipality. The largest investment included the extension of the sewerage system and the sewage treatment plant. Only 3% of the total funds were allocated to the development of tourism and agrotourism. The objectives of the Municipality’s Local Development Plan were not achieved within the set time frame.
Keywords: European Union • EU funds • mountainous areas • rural renewal
New technologies in real estate market analysis
The aim of the study was to present new technologies that are useful for obtaining spatial information on real estate and integrating the data with existing databases maintained by public administration agencies. The technologies presented include the use of GIS tools combined with vector data representing cadastral parcels, and raster data acquired by LiDAR technology. The study also employs descriptive data containing transactional information. The application of these new tools for obtaining spatial information provides real estate market operators with additional data that allows for more reliable market analysis. The methodology of this work has been divided into two parts, the first part related to the creation of a real estate database as a reference for the acquisition of spatial data. The second part was dedicated to the acquisition, processing and analysis of spatial conditions in the study area.
The study used the data on transactions to determine the parcels for which data on elevation situation were acquired. LiDAR data was then applied to the determined parcels to generate the DTM. The obtained terrain elevation model was processed by raster tools, which created maps of slope and maps of aspect.
Currently the data on the features of properties found in real estate price registers maintained by public administration agencies are becoming more accessible in result of the ongoing digitisation of administrative offices in Poland. However, these data do not contain information on slope and aspect – two real estate features that are crucial for surveying areas with varied relief. The presented analysis draws attention to new ways of acquiring spatial data and integrating it with existing databases. Finding ways to integrate data obtained from public administration agencies with modern geographic information systems (GIS) would improve the work not only of valuers, but also of many other real estate professionals (e.g. brokers, developers, bank analysts).
Keywords: GIS • real estate market analysis • terrain slope • exposure of cadastral parcels
Draft of the Zamość development plan of 1939
The paper is written in the form of a scientific essay. The method used was the analysis of historical and contemporary planning materials, starting from the interwar period. Extensive specialist literature has been studied, especially that which raises the issue of the urban, architectural and cultural values of Zamość. It provides an analysis of the “Draft of the Zamość Development Plan of 1939” (“Szkicowy projekt planu zabudowania Zamościa z 1939 r.”) by the architect Jan Zachwatowicz and the urbanist Władysław Wieczorkiewicz. The paper also describes the circumstances leading to the foundation of Zamość. It draws attention to the elements missing from the contemporary urban development plans of the town, which were present in the excellent pre-war planning work. It also underlies the importance of municipal public transport, which should always be the basis for the delimitation of functional zones. It also includes a brief discussion of the 1994 “General Local Plan for the Spatial Development of the City of Zamość” („Miejscowy plan ogólny zagospodarowania przestrzennego miasta Zamościa z 1994 r.”), which, according to the author, is the best planning document produced after the Second World War. The aim of the study was to highlight those elements that coincided with the idea of the 1939 plan sketched by Jan Zachwatowicz and Władysław Wieczorkiewicz. The paper uses the method of footnotes, which refer the reader to the relevant source material and may also provide additional commentary on the presented content. The three illustrations are photographs of maps (charts) of the 1939 plan. They are also included in the 2018 scholarly monograph “Cartographic zamostiana” („Kartograficzne zamostiana”) by Wojciech Przegon and Jakub Żygawski.
Keywords: Zamość • urban planning • spatial development plan • cultural heritage
The second issue, No. 2 (2023)
Sustainability of a hydraulic facility and flood risk of its downstream section: the case of the Foum El-Gherza dam (Ziban east, Algeria)
Due to advanced silting, the Foum El-Gherza dam has lost more than two thirds of its initial capacity (47 hm3) and is no longer able to withstand the floods that threaten its downstream section. Indeed, the damage recorded in recent years has confirmed the vulnerability of the man-made structures located on both banks of the Oued Labiod. Thus, we believe that the hydrological behaviour of the catchment area is no longer influenced by the dam. Therefore, the hydrological study involved a critical analysis (homogeneity tests) of the hydro-climatic data in order to highlight the characteristics of the historical events recorded during the period 1950–2019. The frequency study of the maximum daily rainfall and floods recorded at the dam allowed us to determine the rainfall and flow rates of the return periods (10, 25, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 years). The flooding of the 28 October 2011 were used as a standard for the calibration of the model calculated by the HEC-Ras software. After validation of the model, a prediction of the water levels and flood extent was made for the selected return periods. The results obtained show that a part of the town of Seryana (district located on the edge of the right bank) suffers from flooding proportionally to the return periods of the floods. In addition, some agricultural areas bordering the Oued are also affected by the floodings. The hazard modelling maps can be considered as a basis for a flood risk prevention plan (PPRI) and as a decision support tool.
Keywords: Foum El-Gherza dam • siltation • flooding • downstream section • modeling
Using maps of the former austrian cadastre on the scale of 1:2880 to analyse the data in the land and building registry
The aim of the paper was to present the possibility of processing cadastral data in order to obtain material that could serve as a valuable source of information in the analysis of the current state of records. The paper presents a methodology for processing cadastral data, which provides material that can be compared with data from the Land and Buildings Register (EGiB).
The research area was the Niedzieliska cadastral precinct, located in the municipality of Szczurowa, in the Brzesko district, in the Małopolskie Voivodeship. Based on processed cadastral data and data contained in the EGiB database, the paper determines the differences in the area for 15 cadastral parcels. A comparison of the two records showed that cadastral data allow for analysis of the current state. The implemented methodology confirmed the usefulness of archived cadastral documentation in the analysis of the current state contained in the Land and Building Register. The analysis of the obtained results showed that the differences in the area of the cadastral state and the area of the cadastral parcels exceeded 10% in none of the cases, and the average difference did not exceed 0.0075 ha.
The developed output material can be applied to detect discrepancies and differences between the source data and the current data contained in the EGiB. This makes it possible to identify areas where the causes of discrepancies need to be explained and the necessary corrections need to be made to remove the discrepancies.
Keywords: transformation • cadastre • land and buildings register
Sar interferometry for landslide investigation and surface deformation monitoring: a case study of Souk Ahras area, north-east of Algeria
Landslides – natural disasters be caused by various factors - are frequent in the region surrounding Souk Ahras. Comprehensive fieldwork, such as geotechnical drilling investigations and soil excavations, is conducted to monitor ground movements and assess the feasibility of geological locations. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and other active satellite remote sensors are utilized in Earth Observation-based systems to identify and track ground deformation and landslides in the study area. This research aims to illustrate how open-source processing software, SNAP, provided by the European Space Agency, can be combined with freely available datasets from Copernicus to accomplish this goal. In the North Eastern part of Algeria, which includes Souk Ahras, there is a high risk of landslides Through the use of InSAR technology, the research provided satisfactory results in identifying the morphology of landslides and generating a large-scale interferometric map covering several regions in the East of Algeria, revealing the extent of distortion and spacing caused by the landslide phenomenon.
Keywords: InSAR • SAR • interferometry • landslides • deformation • Zaarouria • Hammam Tassa • Mevhrouha
Terrestrial laser scanning in inventory control of wildlife in a municipal park in Wrocław
The article presents the results of an experiment related to wildlife inventory control with the use of data from terrestrial laser scanning. The measurements were performed with the terrestrial laser scanning system – Riegl VZ-400i. The study area was the Obrońców Westerplatte square in Wrocław. The collected measurement data were pre-processed in a commercial – dedicated RiSCAN Pro environment. Operations related to point cloud georeferencing and its filtering were performed. The tree parameters were measured on the basis of a cloud point obtained in field surveys. This operation was performed with the use of the 3D Forest software. The investigations covered the main parameters of the tree (height and diameter) along with additional parameters, such as the distance between two points of the tree located furthest apart, the surface area of the orthogonal projection of the tree on the reference surface (terrain surface) and the height of the tree crown above the terrain surface. As a result of the performed analyses, an inventory of 70 trees was made within the Obrońców Westerplatte square in Wrocław. Part of the experiment was also to prepare a 3D model of a tree by using some available modeling algorithms. This part was performed in Sequoia software - dedicated to such operations. The software offers three modeling algorithms: Zhu/Bridson, metaballs and union of spheres.
Keywords: tree inventory • laser scanning • 3D modeling
Urban adaptation to climate change and resident awareness. A Polish perspective
The development of urban areas over the last several decades has significantly contributed to climate change. The modern approach to spatial planning and land management responds to the adaptation of cities to changing climate conditions and the need for a liveable environment. The land use of new green spaces and the upgrading of the existing ones should include adaptation to the present and future climate conditions. Cities can adjust to climate change in many different ways. Over the years, the expansion of urban areas has generated a trend towards higher average temperatures than in rural areas, especially in densely populated urban centres with scarce vegetation where temperatures tend to be higher. City growth is detrimental to the natural environment and water circulation. Insufficient vegetation contributes to high air temperature in cities and urban heat islands. In addition, poor water retention and water infrastructure exacerbate urban droughts and floods. Therefore, efforts should be interdisciplinary and multi-faceted to achieve the best results. Adaptation to climate change faces in Poland multiple and diversified barriers. Hence the question: what is happening at the social level? Are residents of cities conscious of the problem, and do they know how to respond to it? What are the barriers concerning climate change? The paper investigates the public awareness of climate change in Poland. The results demonstrate that there is insufficient awareness of climate change in Polish society and a broad remedial measures are needed.
Keywords: Poland • public awareness • adaptation to climate change • modern cities
The reach and the trends in the use of the map service for the local spatial development plan of Tomice municipality
Users are primarily interested in the comfort of use and the range of map service in terms of its functionalities. Publishers, in turn, monitor usage statistics in order to optimize the operation of their websites based on the analysis of these statistics. This also applies to municipal map apps. The present work’s objective is to analyse the reach and trends in the use of the Internet application presenting the local spatial development plan (eMPZP). The monitoring covered the map service of the Tomice municipality – in the Małopolska Region (Województwo Małopolskie), Wadowice district (Powiat Wadowicki), Poland – which is available on the municipality’s server at the Internet address https://www.tomice.pl/mpzp/. The data was collected in the period from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2023. Selected website usage indicators were analysed. In a period of just over 10 years, the eMPZP application was displayed 31,713 times, of which 25,009 (78.86%) were unique views. The largest number of users was recorded in Poland, i.e. 13,044 (83.52%); followed by the United States, i.e. 565 (3.62%) and the United Kingdom, i.e. 434 (2.78%). Most users found the eMPZP application using search engines and direct links. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that map service usage statistics could be useful for municipal authorities, as they help to understand how the service is used, by whom it is used, and what the users’ preferences are. In addition, it was shown that eMPZP still fulfils a number of selected functions, despite the fact that in 2019 it was replaced by a geoportal (http://mpzp.tomice.pl). Accordingly, it is recommended that the so-called automatic redirection be set, sending the users to the current geoportal using specific HTML tags.
Keywords: information management • decision-making process • user monitoring • usage statistics • map service • Google Analytics
The fourth issue, No. 3 (2023)
Use of cartographic data in crisis management
The subject of the research in this paper was a review and identification of types of cartographic documentation used in crisis management in Poland. The analysis focused mainly on assessing the usefulness of cartographic data for visualising the scale of natural phenomena such as floods, landslides, droughts, wind, and others. The most important map that serves as a reference base for various types of industry-related works, especially derivative geodetic works, is the cadastral map stored in the resources of the Land and Building Register. In this study, the authors concentrate on the possibilities of using cartographic data, with a particular emphasis on cadastral maps, for crisis management purposes. The aim of this paper is to review and provide an expert assessment of the usefulness of cartographic data in emergency situations. The research shows that cartographic data are crucial for each of the mentioned hazards, especially the resources of the Land and Building Register, which allow the visualisation of the spatial and temporal scale of these hazards. The success of the measures taken to reduce the occurrence of floods or landslides, for instance, depends first and foremost on fast and seamless access to reliable and up-to-date information on the terrain. The cadastre is one of the publicly accessible registers providing this data, without which crisis management could not be fully effective. The study was conducted through an online survey using an interactive sheet, dedicated to experts (services dealing with different types of hazards).
Keywords: crisis management • cartographic works • hazard maps • cadastral map
Cartographic imaging of the development potential of Nowy Targ
Development potential, studied on the example of the city of Nowy Targ, is defined by the authors as a set of factors contributing to social, economic, and environmental development. Development potential is also understood as a positive change. Properly examined, it provides an opportunity to maintain good practices, such as the protection of ecologically valuable areas or the preservation of traditions directly derived from the region’s characteristics. The methodology used in this study, based on the point bonitation method, has already been applied in the context of ecological and natural assessments of selected territorial units. This publication demonstrates the application of this method to the selection of variables, allowing us to determine the development potential using Nowy Targ as an example. The authors place several indicators in three research sectors: the city’s economy, natural environment, and social development. For the purpose of this study, the city area was divided into 245 squares (PPO) with sides of 500 m × 500 m. The size of the PPOs was chosen with regard to the purpose of the research and adapted to the city’s area. 15 diagnostic variables were adopted in the examination of Nowy Targ’s development potential. The conducted research resulted in a cartographic visualisation of the data using GIS tools. This research provides an opportunity to deepen the analysis of the appropriate choice of development directions when working on municipal development documents. An important advantage of the employed method is its flexibility. A weakness of this method lies in the subjective selection of variables by the researchers and the thematic scope of the chosen research problem. The resulting cartograms allow for a quick assessment of the areas influencing the city’s development or degradation.
Keywords: development potential of cities • choropleth map • point bonitation method
The point location problem on the example of determining map identification number and map sheet extent in the IMW system
The point location problem is one of the most fundamental topics in computational geometry. This problem is particularly well illustrated in the context of maps. In order to determine a point location, it is necessary to work in a specified space, with known division rules. A practical example can be a map sheet division system adopted for the International Map of the World. Given the current advancements in spatial data acquisition and growing availability of spatial data sets, it has become necessary to design an algorithm to identify a map sheet corresponding to a selected point. Available digital data, e.g. orthophotomaps or LiDAR-based data sets, cover whole countries. Due to the size of such data sets, they need to be divided into smaller chunks. The article presents a method of determining a map sheet identification number and a map sheet extent based on the latitude and longitude of a selected point. An inverse problem has also been addressed, allowing a map sheet extent to be identified based on a map sheet identification number. The algorithms developed might be directly implemented in GIS software. They are presented in a ready-to-implement form in the Basic programming language with the use of basic data structures.
Keywords: IMW • index map • geometrical geodesy
Aggregated indices in quality assessment of selected geoinformation websites
Map portals can facilitate the work of public administration units and improve access to information, although they have to present high material and technical quality. Not without significance are also measures supporting these websites. This paper aims to assess the quality of selected geoinformation websites. The study was carried out in the form of a quality audit with the use of selected web applications provided in a freeware, thin-client model. A comparative analysis was performed on three versions of the geoservice functioning for the Tomice municipality (accessed on 5th July 2023): 1) eMPZP website (https://www.tomice.pl/mpzp/), 2) municipal geoportal (http://www.mpzp.tomice.pl), and 3) municipal map portal (https://sip.gison.pl/tomice). The measurements were taken only once and in an ad hoc manner. The tests were performed in selected quality dimensions: responsiveness, performance, content and hyperlink quality, accessibility for people with disabilities, syntactic code correctness, search engine optimisation (SEO), and usage indicators, with special emphasis on overall quality. The conclusion was that each of the geoportals evaluated presents good quality. However, it would be wrong to compare them in absolute terms, as the quality of these services should be assessed through the lens of the different times in which they operate.
Keywords: quality • quality management • information management • quality assessment • aggregate measurement • quality improvement
Use of remote sensing as an indicator of the urban heat island effect: the case of the municipality of Guelma (north-east of Algeria)
The main objective of this study is to show which of the LST-NDVI and LST-NDBI relationships can determine the most accurate index that can be used as an indicator of the effects of urban heat islands in the municipality of Guelma, using Landsat data. 8 OLI/TIRS and the geographic information system. The application of the calculation formulas made it possible to extract the Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Built up Index (NDBI) of the municipality of Guelma for the four seasons of 2019. This calculation led to the determination of the relationship between all three indicators. The results obtained show a strong correlation between the LST and the NDBI for the four seasons of the year. They suggest that the NDBI is an accurate indicator of the heat island effect in Guelma. This indicator can serve as a tool for future urban planning by those in charge of this department. However, there is currently and urgent need to strengthen strategies for reducing the effects of urban heat islands in order to preserve the quality of urban life of the inhabitants and by setting up emergency programs.
Keywords: Landsat 8 • LST • NDVI • NDBI • Guelma • Algeria
Investigation of litho-biostratigraphic characteristics and geographical distribution of Coniacian-Santonian formations: a case study in the Aures Mountains, eastern Saharan Atlas, Algeria
The Coniacian-Santonian series in the Aures Mountains of northeastern Algeria is characterized by marly-dominated sedimentation processes. This study aims to comprehensively investigate this series by combining lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data. The unique paleogeographic position of the Aures basin supports the co-occurrence of diverse paleontological contents in the Upper Cretaceous sediments. The methodology employed in this study includes a detailed bio-lithostratigraphic analysis to subdivide the Coniacian-Santonian series into two distinct sets. The first set comprises alternating marl-limestone units that exhibit a high fossil concentration from the Coniacian age, while the second set mainly consists of marly sediments corresponding to the Santonian age. The results obtained from this study highlight the geographical distribution of litho-biostratigraphic characteristics and reveal the presence of two formations. The lower formation is characterized by carbonated marls intercalated with limestone banks, containing fossils of Peroniceras (Tissotia tissoto) from the Coniacian age. Meanwhile, the upper formation is predominantly marly and indicates the Santonian age by displaying fossils of Palcenticeras polypsis. Furthermore, a biostratigraphic analysis focused on foraminifers allows for the subdivision of the Coniacian-Santonian series in the Aures Mountains into three distinct biozones. The first biozone corresponds to the lower Coniacian age and is identified by the presence of Dicarinella primitiva. The second biozone represents the middle to upper coniacian age and contains Dicarinella concavata fossils. Finally, the third biozone, belonging to the Santonian age, is marked by the occurrence of Dicarinella asymetrica. The boundary between the Coniacian and Santonian series in the Aures Mountains is characterized by the first appearance of Dicarinella asymetrica and Palcenticeras polypsis species. This multidisciplinary study provides valuable insights into the litho-biostratigraphic characteristics and geographical distribution of the Coniacian-Santonian series in the Aures Mountains. The findings make a significant contribution to a better understanding of sedimentary processes and the paleontological content within this region during the Upper Cretaceous period.
Keywords: biostratigraphy • Foraminifera • Biozonation • Coniacian • Santonian • Aures • Algeria
Evaluation of the effectiveness of planning tools in the protection of landscape values, on the example of the Wysowa Zdrój village
Landscape values are defined in the Polish nature protection law as the natural, cultural and visual values of a given area formed by the nature forces or human activity. Protection of landscape values is realized by the establishment of nature conservation categories with different conservation regimes. No less important instrument for the protection of landscape amenities is spatial planning. This is particularly important in areas exposed to urbanization pressures due to the attractiveness of the area for the development of residential and tourist functions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of different instruments for the protection of valuable landscape structures. The research was conducted in the Wysowa village, a health and tourist resort. The analysis showed that the most stable elements of the landscape structure are forests. The most vulnerable to irreversible changes are arable land and pastures. Despite many provisions regarding the preservation of scenic exposure, landforms, historical layout of fields and buildings, one can get the impression that activities in the field of preserving landscape values are not strictly followed. This is due to the fact that some of the analysed documents do not have the character of commonly binding laws. In the documents legally binding at the municipal level, the provisions relating to the need to preserve protection of scenic values are very general and lack detailed guidelines regarding the specific measures that should be applied. As a result, there is a considerable flexibility in land use changes, which reduces the protection of landscape values.
Urban traffic incident management, using network analysis to improve the evacuation time to healthcare facilities
The city of Biskra is ranked the second city in Algeria with the highest traffic accident rate. There are multiple causes of accidents that derive from the diversity of traffic. In addition, its geographical location as a crossroads between the northeast and the south of Algeria is a major factor. Biskra is also considered a commercial and industrial city that receives daily large flows of travellers and merchandise.
Traffic accidents are a complex problems that is dealt with in several approaches. In this research, from a geographical point of view, we will contribute to improve the trajectory of intervention and evacuation. Therefore, this research paper aims to create a geodatabase including the road network with associated entities to carry out spatiotemporal analyses and evaluate the service area of health facilities in terms of the nearest path.
This paper uses GIS tools for evacuation to the public hospital employing a Network Analyst. This study may serve as a decision-making aid for the local authorities of this city in terms of evacuation and intervention in the event of a road accident. It provides real-time information on the location of the accident and the nearest path along with an estimated time.
The outputs of these analyses can determine a map of accessibility, which allows for training in order to improve the real-time evacuation. As a result, this approach will lead to the reduction of evacuation time by less than 10 minutes, and thus leading to a decrease in the number of fatalities.
Keywords: road accidents • network analysis • health facilities • evacuation time • Biskra
The impact of land set-aside on the chemical and physical properties of the soil and the composition of vegetation species. Case study
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of soil use in the Młoszowa and Bolęcin villages on the species composition of the overgrown vegetation. Additionally, the study compared the chemical and physical properties of the soils that were not being used for agriculture. The soils of Młoszowa and Bolęcinvillages did not exceed the permissible concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc for agricultural land, as outlined by the national regulations in [Journal of Laws 2016]. In Młoszowa, the concentration of cadmium exceeded the limit values as per national regulations in [Journal of Laws 2016] for agriculturally utilised land (land group II-2) (<3 g · 10–3 · kg–1 DM). The set-aside of both villages consisted of species typical of ruderal areas, fresh grassland, and thermophilous species. The granulometric composition of the soils, mainly their silt and sand content, were the primary factors that impacted the species composition of the set-aside vegetation. Ruderal and thermophilous species were discovered in the set-aside areas, which are their natural habitats. The occurring ruderal plants typical of post-mining heaps and post-industrial areas, including hemicryptophytes, testify to the long-term process of fallowing and adaptation to the existing ecosystem with a predominance of the most common species.
Keywords: soil • land set-aside • heavy metals • vegetation
The fourth issue, No. 4 (2023)
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Surface water and groundwater quality assessment using the WQI method and human health risk assessment (HHR) in the lower seybouse (Annaba Plain), northeast Algeria
This study was carried out to investigate the current status of surface water and groundwater quality in Lower Seybouse and Annaba Plain, NE Algeria. 36 surface water and groundwater samples were collected in this area, and various physicochemical parameters were analysed. The quality of surface water and groundwater for drinking and the associated health risks were assessed using a Water Quality Index (WQI) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) model. The results show that all samples are alkaline with the EC values ranging from 1139 to 5555 μS/cm. The ionic dominance pattern was in the order of Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+ for cations and Cl– > HCO3– > SO42 – > NO3– for anions, respectively. The dominant water types are SO4-Cl-Ca-Mg and SO4-Cl-Na, formed by dissolution of evaporative and carbonate-rich material. All samples are unsuitable for drinking, with 1 sample classified as poor (rank = 4) and 35 samples as extremely poor (rank = 5). These samples are mainly located near the Seybouse Wadi, which is a natural outlet for wastewater from human activities. The assessment of non-carcinogenic risk showed that the Hazard Index (HI) for males ranged from 0.12 to 1.01 with a mean of 0.30 and only one sample exceeded value 1. For females, the HI was between 0.16 and 1.28 for females, with a mean of 0.39. The risk for children was even higher, ranging from 0.41 to 3.28, with a mean of 1.03, suggesting that children are more vulnerable to water contamination. The Carcinogenic Risk (CR) values for Pb ranged from 10–3 to 8.6 · 10–3, with a mean of 2.6 · 10–3 for males, and between 1.4 · 10–3 to 10–2, with a mean of 3.3 · 10–3 for females, while for children the CR values ranged from 3.5 · 10–3 to 2.7 · 10–3, with a mean of 8.4 · 10–3, indicating that no possible CR from water drinking.
Keywords: WQI • HHRA • non-carcinogenic • HI • carcinogenic • Lower Seybouse